Legal Latin Phrases

Latin is of the utmost importance to people who study law. In ancient times, most of Europe was ruled by the Romans. They introduced their language (Latin) and their laws. After the fall of the Roman Empire, barbaric tribes conquered the lands dominated by the Romans. These barbarians could not read or write, so they had to adopt Latin, as that was language in which the laws of the conquered people were written.  Many of the principles and statues, still in practice today, have evolved from ancient Roman law. So it is of no surprise that many terms you hear in detective and law movies and TV shows are in Latin.

  1. A fortiori - By force (Legal term - With greater reason)
  2. A latere - On the side (Legal term - Denotes collateral)
  3. A mensa et thoro - From table and bed (Legal term - separation)
  4. A minima - For being too small (Legal term - Indicates that the case should go to a lower court)
  5. A non domino - From the non owner (Legal term - Argument from the person who does not own the item in question)
  6. A posteriori - After the fact (Legal term - actions after the fact - also philosophical term: from what is before - Inductive reasoning)
  7. A priori - Before the fact (Legal term - Actions before the fact - First speech - Philosophical term: from what is before - Deductive reasoning)
  8. A quo - From which (Legal term - the point which is initial limit of time)
  9. A verbis ad verbera - From words to blows (Legal term)
  10. A vinculo matrimonii - From the bounds of matrimony (Legal term)
  11. Ab antecedente - In adavance (Legal term)
  12. Ab intestato - Having made no will (Legal term)
  13. Ab irato - By anger (Legal term - Something which is invalidated, because it was done with unreasonable anger)
  14. Ab utraque parte - Of both parties (Legal Term - Gai Institutiones - Common property e.g. an island in the middle a river is the common property of the proprietors on both banks)
  15. Aberratio ictus - Mistake in the blow (Legal term that refers in an error where the wrong person gets hurt, e.g. to shot against one person and kill someone else)
  16. Abusus non est usus, sed corruptela - Abuse is not use, it is corruption (Legal term)
  17. Abusus non tollit usum - The abuse does invalidate the use (Legal term - Abuses shall not prevent to use something correctly)
  18. Accesorium non ducit, sed sequitur suum principale - The accessory does not lead, they follow the fortunes of the principal (Legal term)
  19. Actio damni infecti - Action for damages and infections (Legal term - e.g. Restitution for cattle grazing on the plaintiff's land)
  20. Actio de in rem verso - Enrichment without cause (Legal term)
  21. Actio de partu agnoscendo - Action of recognition of the child (Legal term)
  22. Actio est ius persequendi in iudicio, quod sibi debetur - Action is the right to obtain what it is due by the process of law (Legal term - Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Instituta, libri 1, 6)
  23. Actio illicita in causa - Action illicitly planned (Legal term - compare with Actio libera in causa)
  24. Actio in personam - Personal action (Legal term)
  25. Actio in rem scripta - Real action (Legal term)
  26. Actio libera in causa - Action free in its cause (Legal term - compare with Actio illicita in causa)
  27. Actio pro socio - An action of partnership (Legal term - An action brought by one partner against his associates to compel them to carry out the terms of the partnership agreement)
  28. Actio Redhibitoria - Action to rescind a sale (Legal term)
  29. Actio semel extincta non reviviscit - Extinguished action does not revive (Legal term)
  30. Actiones non natae non praescribunt - Actions that have not been born, are not prescribed (Legal term)
  31. Actor incumbit probatio, reus excipiendo fit actor - The plaintiff must provide proof of the facts alleged, the defendant the exceptions presented (Legal term)
  32. Actore non probante, reus absolvitur - When the plaintiff does not prove his case, the defendant is absolved (Legal term)
  33. Actori incumbis onus probandi - The plaintiff must prove the case (Legal term)
  34. Actus me invito pactus, non es meus actus - What I did against my will is not my fault (Legal term)
  35. Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea - The act does not make a person guilty unless the mind is also guilty (Legal term)
  36. Ad acta - To the archives (Legal term - abbreviated as AA)
  37. Ad acta atra peracta sunt facta atta patrata - For dark acts are prepared dark jails (Legal term in reference to serious crimes)
  38. Ad auxilium vocatus - The one called to help (Legal term - ad-vocatus = lawyer)
  39. Ad avizandum - To further consider ( The term employed when a Scottish Court takes further time for the consideration of a cause, instead of pronouncing an immediate decision upon it. The Court is said to ‘take the case ad avizandum’ or to ‘make avizandum of the case’”. This Latinate word is one of the many Scottish legal terms that is not heard in English Courts - Thank you: Alasdair Rankin )
  40. Ad bona - For the good (Legal term - Used in the frase "curator ad bona" in reference to the guardian of estate of minor)
  41. Ad cautelam - As a precaution (Legal term - Refers to a docuement that is not necessary, but it is filed just in case)
  42. Ad effectum vivendi et probandi - To the effect of being seen and proven (Legal term)
  43. Ad hoc - For the immediate purpose (Legal term - It is used to described something that was meant for one purpose, but it is used for another. For example, a knife could be used "ad hoc" as a screwdriver. It could also mean the opposite. For example, a law was passed "ad hoc" to help the victims of a disaster)
  44. Ad hominem - To the man (Diplomatic and Legal term - Attack against the man instead of the facts. An “argument ad hominem” tries to discredit the man, instead of his arguments)
  45. Ad hominen tu quoque - Directed to the man, you too (Legal and philosophical term - You too fallacy - Two wrongs make a right - Argumentum ad hominem that consists of defending oneself by accusing the accuser of the same crime)
  46. Ad idem - Of the same (Legal term - Meeting of the minds - Both parties of the contract understand and accept the terms)
  47. Ad illic - In that place (Legal term)
  48. Ad impossibilia nemo tenetur - No one is obligated to perform the impossible (Legal term)
  49. Ad inquirendum - To the inquiry (Legal term - Court mandate inquiry of anything related to the case)
  50. Ad iuditium - From judgement (Legal term)
  51. Ad libitum - At will (Legal Term abbreviated as ad lib.)
  52. Ad litem - For the suit (Legal term - "guardian ad litem" refers to a party appointed by a court to represent the interests of another)
  53. Ad probationem - To probe (Legal term - evidence used as proof)
  54. Ad quem - To which (Legal term - e.g. Terminus ad quen Limit to which - compare with post quem - after which)
  55. Ad referendum - To reference (Legal term and also Diplomatic term - Indicates that although the main points has been agreed to, there are still details to be worked out later)
  56. Ad solemnitatem - To solemnity (Legal term - Seriousness required to validate the act)
  57. Ad usum - To usage (Legal term - According to custom)
  58. Ad verecundiam - To the venerability (Legal and philosophical term used in logic to describe a Argumentum ad hominem fallacy, where an argument is accepted due to the respect (venerability) of the person asserting it, instead of the facts - Also known as argument to respect or argument to prestige)
  59. Addictio bonorum libertatum servandorum causa - Property exchanged to gain freedom (Legal term - When a master died, the slaves could obtain the property with the condition that they pay all the creditors)
  60. Adhuc sub iudice lis est - The dispute is still before the judge (Horace - Legal term - Ars poetica)
  61. Aditio a die - Adition to date (Legal term - Condition in which the buyer accepts termination of the sale, if the seller finds a better offer within the deadline stated in the contract)
  62. Aditio haereditatis - Addition of inheritance (Legal term)
  63. Aditio in diem - Adition to date (Legal term - Condition in which the buyer accepts termination of the sale, if the seller finds a better offer within the deadline stated in the contract)
  64. Admissio proter non usum - Admission by lack of use (Legal term - voluntary servitude is ended by non-use)
  65. Adoptio naturam imitatur - Adoption imitates nature (Legal term)
  66. Advocati non ultra quam litium poscit utilitas in licentiam conviciandit et malidicendi temeritati prorrumpant - Lawyers should not employ reckless insults and curses, not having to do with the utility of the Process (Legal term)
  67. Advocatorum error litigatoribus non noceat - An error by the defenders can not harm litigants (Legal term - Codex Iustiniani 2.9.3)
  68. Aediles plebei - Custodian of the people (In ancient Rome, auxiliary officers in charge of minor legal issues)
  69. Aequitas sequitur legem - Equity follows the law (Legal term)
  70. Aequo animo - With a calm mind (Legal term)
  71. Aestimatio delicti praeteriti ex post facto non crescit - The evaluation of a past crime does not increase by a subsequent event (Legal term)
  72. Affectio societatis - Intention to form a society (Legal term)
  73. Affidavit - Gave faith (Legal term - A sworn written statement)
  74. Alibi - In another place (Legal term - In legal parlance is used to designate the excuse, namely that a person has not been at the crime scene)
  75. Alieni iuris - Alian right (Legal Term - A person (e.g. a minor) who is legally dependent on another. Compare with sui iuris)
  76. Aliud est punire, aliud vindicare - One thing is to punish, to vindicate is another (Legal Term Leonard Lessius 1554-1623)
  77. Alter parens - Other Parent (Legal term - Person whom something is owe )
  78. Amicus curiae - A friend of the court (Legal term - Advisor in matter of law)
  79. Animus confidenti - Intention to confess (Legal term)
  80. Animus defendendi - Intention to defend (Legal term)
  81. Animus domini - Intent to be owner (Legal term)
  82. Animus donandi - Intention to make a gift (Legal term)
  83. Animus iniuriandi - Intent to injure (Legal term normally written as cum animo iniuriandi)
  84. Animus iocandi - Intent to joke (Legal term)
  85. Animus laedendi - Intent to injure (Legal term)
  86. Animus lucrandi - Intent to make a profit (Legal term)
  87. Animus necandi - Intent to harm (Legal term)
  88. Animus Possidendi - An intention to possess (Legal Term - In claims for adverse possession that concerns land, it is essential to prove that person who has physically possess the land must also have an intention to actually possess the land. Without which, no Adverse Possession could be established. - Thank you: Mathilda Kwong)
  89. Animus rem sibi habendi - Intent to keep the thing (Legal term)
  90. Animus revertendi - Intent to return (Legal term - Roman law applied to lost animals. They no longer belonged to their owner, if they left the property without the intent to return)
  91. Animus solvendi - Intention to pay (Legal term)
  92. Apud iudisem - Near the judgement (Legal term - procedural stage before the judge presented his sentence)
  93. Arbiter compromissarius - Arbiter of compromise (Legal Term - A referee who was chosen by the two parties in dispute)
  94. Arbiter ex nudo pacto - Arbiter without covenant (Legal term - A referee who was chosen by the two parties of the dispute, but they are not obliged to obey his decision)
  95. Arbiter in causis bonae fidei - Arbiter in good faith (Legal term)
  96. Arbiter in stricti iuris - Arbiter in strict judgment (Legal term - A referee who was assigned to strictly follow the law)
  97. Arbiter iuratus - Sworded arbiter (Legal term - Referee which both parties in dispute swore to obey)
  98. Arbiter nihil extra compromissum facere potest - The arbitrator can do nothing beyond the agreement to arbitrate (Legal Term)
  99. Arbiter sententia iudicum constitutus - Arbiter appointed to settle the sentence (Legal term - Referee assigned by a judge to settle the accounts)
  100. Argumentum a maiori ad minus - Argument from major to minor (Legal term - Applied to civil law where if one party has rights to the larger item, it also has it to he smaller one)

Total: 646
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